On the Real Risk of Thumb-drives
The first disk drive that I ever saw was the size and weight of a refrigerator and gave off as much heat. It would hold one megabyte. It was so expensive that it was far more likely to be used for tables than for files or databases. At the same time, the storage medium of choice was punched paper, cards or tape. A gigabyte in punched cards would fill a railroad box car.
The first hard drive that I bought was 10mb and cost me $3000 at IBM employee price. I thought I would never use it up. One can now buy a terabyte in a cigar box for $115 (I kid you not!) and for $50 one can buy 320GB that will fit in one's shirt pocket.
This week I bought an 8GB micro-SDHC card. It is the size of my fingernail. I paid $18 plus $4 shipping and handling although it could have been sent first class mail for less than a $1. A great portion of the cost is in the transaction, not the materials nor even the technology.
I thought that the SD card, the size of a postage stamp, was as small as a storage device would ever get. Smaller than that, one can hardly label or keep up with. However, the devices in which the storage is used are getting smaller and thus the microSD.
About every decade or so, as storage gets smaller, denser, and cheaper, managers began to worry that its very existence will encourage data theft. One could carry a 2400' reel of tape in one's overcoat or send out half a dozen in the waste paper basket. Multiple diskettes could be carried in a shirt pocket. Said another way, it has been a long time since the weight or the volume of the data was a deterrent to its theft.
However, we are going through the panic again. This time it is "USB drives." For example, a recent press release said "Lumension’s 2008 Annual Report and Threat Predictions for 2009 finds removable media as “the leading cause of data breaches…."
Dr. Peter Tippett reports, "It is endless talk among very large company CIO’s and CSO/CISOs that I speak with every week.. I think the driver is that everyone has a small case that happened in their shop, or that they heard about among their peers.... Then they have a “wouldn’t it be horrible if” worst case scenario they dream up relative to their own data.. And voila! It is the worst thing."
The other hand, in the 500 cases that Verizon reports on in its Data Breach Report, there were no cases in which thumbdrives (or other small portable media) played more than an incidental role. In no case did it appear necessary to the success of the breach, much less was it “causal.”
Even DoD leadership has been panicked by ‘thumb drives.’ Rather than control access to the data, they are trying to resist the technology. They no longer permit, at least as a matter of policy, portable digital media inside secure computing facilities, only paper. In some commands they do not permit the use of thumbdrives on (user owned) laptops attached to their networks. Anyone else see the irony here?
Now we all understand the limits of such controls. Modern storage is now so dense that one can conceal and carry an entire database inside any body cavity. (Yes, in certain extreme instances, authorities do search body cavities; this is usually law enforcement, not security, and in no case is it routine.) One can no more resist leakage by resisting media, digital or analog, than one can resist the use of computers, networks, or, for that matter, paper. The economics are simply against it. We pay extra for small and dense.
The way to resist data leakage is to restrict access to the sensitive, proprietary, or personally identifiable information, near the source (e.g., at the database server) and hold people accountable for its use. It is difficult to do but it is orders of magnitude more efficient than chasing the new tiny media de jour. It is far easier to control what data is copied than to control where it is copied or what happens to the copy. Data access control is media independent. Said another way, it works for all media, including the network, now and in the future, not just the one that one that is topical.
When I was a small boy and first went out to play without supervision, my mother said, “Son, never ever take thumbdrives from strangers.” When I got a little older, my daddy said, “Son, never ever put your thumbdrive in a strange machine.” I assume that someone cautioned my sister not to let anyone put their thumbdrive in her machine.”
The real risk of portable media is not data leakage but system contamination.