......no longer cuts it.
The cost of attack against targets of choice has fallen close to that of targets of opportunity. Patience helps and may even be necessary but not much work or access is required; the necessary special knowledge is available as a toolkit for tens of dollars. Attackers are in different legal jurisdictions and may even be agents of foreign nation states; they do not, and need not, fear detection or identification, much less prosecution.
The value of a successful attack is too high and rising. Compromised credentials may result in losses of hundreds of thousands of dollars, expensive to the banks, but a threat to the health and continuity of a small business customer. Compromised systems may result in the loss of intellectual property that threatens the health, competitiveness, and continuity of the enterprise. Can you say Google? RSA? Can you say Sony?
Too many web facing applications have unchecked inputs making them vulnerable to SQL injection and buffer overflow attacks. These attacks are resulting in the compromise of personally identifiable information (PII) and payment card information (PCI). They have become so common that many no longer make news.
While we still see bait on web sites and some spam, the most efficient bait is crafted to appeal to identified individuals and is delivered by e-mail. For many enterprises a crafted bait message may be sufficient to compromise their whole network. The bait messages that used to appeal to fear, greed, or lust now appeal to curiosity. One report had it that the bait messages addressed to RSA were labeled "2011 Hiring plan."
Accepting the bait may compromise the user's credentials, as we saw in Patco and Experi-Metals, facilitating re-play attacks. Alternatively, it may compromise a system, providing a tunnel through the perimeter and an agent on the network, as we saw in RSA.
The net of all of this is that "Business as usual" will not cut it. We must raise the state of the practice closer to the state of the art. We must raise the cost of attack and lower the value of success. We must raise the bar across the board.
Since e-mail is proving to be such an efficient attack vector and involved in so many compromises, it is a good place to start.
Awareness training is necessary but not sufficient. With a sufficiently large population of users, it is inevitable that one or more will take the bait. It is not stupidity or even carelessness. Rather it is simply human nature.
Upgrade or outsource your e-mail. Use a restrictive e-mail policy; that is, accept messages only from known sources. Ninety percent of all your traffic comes from such sources and they are limited in number. Quarantine or "red-flag" everything else. Be sure that the "from address" agrees with the origin address.
Encourage users to have personal e-mail addresses that they can access from their own mobile devices or kiosk machines provided for the purpose. Yes, it is a change in culture but not as expensive we pretend that it is.
Since unchecked inputs is obviously part of the problem, address them. Checking inputs is much harder than it looks, beyond the training, knowledge, skills, and abilities of most application programmers. That is why this problem, identified forty years ago, still persists. Therefore, application programmers should all be trained and required to use the OWASP Enterprise Security API.
Most of us still use M&M security, crisp on the outside, soft and mushy on the inside.
Assume that there is no perimeter or that there is an agent on the inside. The NSA behaves accordingly. If one has, or assumes that one has, untrusted machines on one's network, one must place place firewalls between all systems and their networks. These must implement a restrictive policy; only that traffic explicitly permitted must pass.
We must have strong authentication, credentials that cannot be re-played raise the cost of attack and reduce the value of success. More on this next week when we talk about the "new" authentication guidance from the Federal Financilaal Institutions Examination Council.
Servers must talk only in secret codes, VPNs to clients, VLANs to one another. Terminate VPNs on the applications, not on the perimeter, not on operating systems. Applications should talk only in secret codes, only to those who have the key.
Lock down every system that you can. Restrict "write" access to programs. Part of our problem is that the population of systems that can be compromised is ten times the size it needs to be. Most users do not require the discretion to execute arbitrary programs or even to install applications. Most users could get along with thin clients to apps running on servers. If a user takes bait but his system resists compromise, then no permanent harm done may be done.
Configure access control on database servers. We are relying on application servers to protect the database servers; they are not up to the task. Use a restrictive policy; even these will leak but they will raise the cost of attack over permissive one's. Most application data, personally identifiable information, payment card data, and intellectual property must be stored on object-oriented, database servers, not in flat files, not on personal systems.
We must have stronger application controls. It is absurd, for example, for an application to permit 92 transactions in a day, for hundreds of thousands of dollars, using credentials that have never been used for that purpose before, against an account that normally had a zero balance, and against which no more than one or two transactions had ever been made in a day. In addition to checked inputs and database controls, we need controls specific to the application. Application controls raise the cost of attack and reduce the value of success.
Do you really believe that your security is that much better than Sony's, that you could resist the same kind of attack? If compromised in the same way, do you have a plan to return your network to a known and trusted state? Note that this requires rigorous separation of data and programs so that you can restore programs without the loss of data.
Let me not forget monitoring, measurement, and reporting. Turning on logs is necessary but not sufficient. If one waits until after something goes wrong and looks at them only for forensic purposes, it is too late. There is software for integrating logs and for using them pro-actively to identify and resist attacks before, rather than after, they succeed.
Restrictive policies, even for e-mail, least privilege, even for users, strong authentication, stronger applications, encryption by default, and better monitoring, measurement, and reporting all round. It is time to get serious.
Many of these measures are counter-cultural. They will have some influence on the way people do their jobs. They will generate some resistance and even some resentment. We will have to change attitudes. Notice that they do not require new tools so much as changes to how we use our tools.
These are just tactics but a change of this magnitude is strategic. It is ambitious. It will require leadership, commitment, and planning. It will take time, of which we have little enough. If we are to continue to be called professionals and to be paid the big bucks, we must be able to look back two years from now and measure a marked improvement in our security posture. If you are not up to the challenge, perhaps you should update your resume. On second thought, perhaps you should consider a change in career.